Access-and-legitimacy perspective on diversity - Reflects the belief that organizations should value diversity because their markets and constituents are culturally diverse
Accommodation - A style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one’s own interests.
Accountability - The expectation that employees will perform a job, take corrective action when necessary, and report upward on the status and quality of their performance.
Accounting Audits - Procedures used to verify accounting reports and statements.
Acquisition - One firm buying another.
Acquired needs theory - States that three needs—achievement, affiliation, and power—are the key drivers of employee behavior
Activity-Based Costing (ABC) - A method of cost accounting designed to identify streams of activity and then to allocate costs across particular business processes according to the amount of time employees devote to particular activities.
Adapters - Companies that take the current industry structure and its evolution as givens, and choose where to compete.
Adaptive change - Reimplementation of a change in the same organizational unit at a later time or imitation of a similar change by a different unit.
Added-value negotiation (AVN) - The negotiating parties cooperatively develop multiple deal packages while building a productive longterm relationship.
Adhocracy culture - One that values an external focus and flexibility over internal and control
Adverse Impact - When a seemingly neutral employment practice has a disproportionately negative effect on a protected group.
Advertising Support Model - Charging fees to advertise on a site.
Affective Conflict - Emotional disagreement directed toward other people.
Affective component of an attitude - The feelings or emotions one has about a given object or situation
Affiliate Model Charging - fees to direct site visitors to other companies’ sites.
Affirmative Action - Special efforts to recruit and hire qualified members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past. An artificial intervention aimed at giving management a chance to correct an imbalance, injustice, mistake, or outright discrimination that occurred in the past
Alderfer’s ERG Theory - A human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) - Resolution that uses faster, more user-friendly methods of dispute resolution, instead of traditional, adversarial approaches (e.g., unilateral decision making or litigation).
Amplifying effect - Creation of positive outcomes because of their association with positive emotions and social capital
Anticipatory socialization phase - Information gathered and expectations formed before an individual actually joins an organization.
Arbitration - The use of a neutral third party to resolve a labor dispute.
Artifacts - The physical manifestation of an organization’s culture.
Assessment Center - A managerial performance test in which candidates participate in a variety of exercises and situations.
Assets - The values of the various items the corporation owns.
Attention - The process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone.
Attentional deficit - Reflects the inability to focus vividly on an object
Attentional hyperactivity - Happens when our minds are racing or wandering, resulting in compulsive daydreaming or fantasizing.
Attitudes - Our feelings or opinions about people, places, and objects, and range from positive to negative
Authentic Leadership - A style in which the leader is true to himself or herself while leading.
Authority - The legitimate right to make decisions and to tell other people what to do.
Autocratic Leadership - A form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group.
Automated experiences - Represent a choice that is based on a familiar situation and a partially subconscious application of previously learned information related to that situation
Autonomy Needs - This is the desire to have freedom and discretion in determining what you want to do and how you want to do it.
Work Groups - Groups that control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks.
Avoidance - A reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement.
Avoiding style - Passive withdrawal from the problem and active suppression of the issue.