Cafeteria Benefit Program - An employee benefit program in which employees choose from a menu of options to create a benefit package tailored to their needs.

Caux Principles - Ethical principles established by international executives based in Caux, Switzerland, in collaboration with business leaders from Japan, Europe, and the United States.

Centralized Organization - An organization in which high-level executives make most decisions and pass them down to lower levels for implementation.

Certainty - The state that exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information.

Charismatic Leader - A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.

Chief Information Officer (CIO) - Executive in charge of information technology strategy and development.

Clan Control - Control based on the norms, values, shared goals, and trust among group members.

Coaching - Dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve his or her full potential on the job.

Coalitional Model - Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiation to influence decisions.

Cognitive Conflict - Issue-based differences in perspectives or judgments.

Cohesiveness - The degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another

Collaboration - A style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize both parties’ satisfaction.

Communication - The transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols. comparable worth Principle of equal pay for different jobs of equal worth.

Competing - A style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for the other person’s goals.

Competitive Environment - The immediate environment surrounding a firm; includes suppliers, customers, rivals, and the like.

Competitive Intelligence - Information that helps managers determine how to compete better.

Compliance-Based Ethics Programs - Company mechanisms typically designed by corporate counsel to prevent, detect, and punish legal violations.

Compromise - A style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties’ concerns.

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) - The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to sequence and optimize a number of production processes.

Concentration - A strategy employed for an organization that operates a single business and competes in a single industry.

Concentric Diversification - A strategy used to add new businesses that produce related products or are involved in related markets and activities.

Conceptual and Decision Skills - Skills pertaining to the ability to identify and resolve problems for the benefit of the organization and its members.

Concurrent Control - The control process used while plans are being carried out, including directing, monitoring, and fine tuning activities as they are performed.

Conflict - Opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the level of psychological conflict or of conflict between individuals or groups.

Conglomerate Diversification - A strategy used to add new businesses that produce unrelated products or are involved in unrelated markets and activities.

Contingency Plans - Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds.

Continuous Process - A process that is highly automated and has a continuous production flow.

Control - Any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of organizational goals.

Controlling - The management function of monitoring performance and making needed changes.

Cooperative Strategies - Strategies used by two or more organizations working together to manage the external environment.

Coordination - The procedures that link the various parts of an organization for the purpose of achieving the organization’s overall mission

Coordination by Mutual Adjustment - Units interact with one another to make accommodations to achieve flexible coordination.

Coordination by Plan - Interdependent units are required to meet deadlines and objectives that contribute to a common goal.

Core Competence - A unique skill and/or knowledge an organization possesses that give it an edge over competitors.

Corporate Governance - The role of a corporation’s executive staff and board of directors in ensuring that the firm’s activities meet the goals of the firm’s stakeholders.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) - Obligation toward society assumed by business.

Corporate Strategy - The set of businesses, markets, or industries in which an organization competes and the distribution of resources among those entities

Cost Competitiveness - Keeping costs low to achieve profits and be able to offer prices that are attractive to consumers.

Culture Shock - The disorientation and stress associated with being in a foreign environment.

Current Ratio - A liquidity ratio that indicates the extent to which short-term assets can decline and still be adequate to pay short-term liabilities.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) - A multifaceted process focusing on creating two-way exchanges with customers to foster intimate knowledge of their needs, wants, and buying patterns.

Custom-Made Solutions - New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem.