Debt-Equity Ratio - A leverage ratio that long-term financial obligations.

Decentralized Organization - An organization in which lower-level managers make important decisions.

Defenders - Companies that stay within a stable product domain as a strategic maneuver.

Delegation - The assignment of new or additional responsibilities to a subordinate.

Democratic Leadership - A form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates.

Demographics - Measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units.

Departmentalization - Subdividing an organization into smaller subunits.

Development - Helping managers and professional employees learn the broad skills needed for their present and future jobs.

Development Project - A focused organizational effort to create a new product or process via technological advances.

Devil’s Advocate - A person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored.

Dialectic - A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action.

Differentiation - An aspect of the organization’s internal environment created by job specialization and the division of labor.

Differentiation Strategy - A strategy an organization uses to build competitive advantage by being unique in its industry or market segment along one or more dimensions.

Discounting the Future - A bias weighting short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits.

Diversification - A firm’s investment in a different product, business, or geographic area.

Diversity Training - Programs that focus on identifying and reducing hidden biases against people with differences and developing the skills needed to manage a diversified workforce.

Divestiture - A firm selling one or more businesses.

Divisional Organization - Departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions.

Division of Labor - The assignment of different tasks to different people or groups.

Domain Selection - Entering a new market or industry with an existing expertise.

Downsizing - The planned elimination of positions or jobs.

Downward Communication - Information that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization’s hierarchy.

Dynamic Network - Temporary arrangements among partners that can be assembled and reassembled to adapt to the environment.