Parading - A team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility.

Parallel Teams - Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure, and exist temporarily.

Participation in Decision Making - Leader behaviors that managers perform in involving their employees in making decisions. 

Path-Goal Theory A theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.

Perception - The process of receiving and interpreting information.

Performance Appraisal (PA) - Assessment of an employee’s job performance.

Performance Gap - The difference between actual performance and desired performance.

Philanthropic Responsibilities - Additional behaviors and activities that society finds desirable and that the values of the business support.

Planning - The management function of systematically making decisions about of systematically making decisions about the goals and activities that an individual, a group, a work unit, or the overall organization will pursue.

Plans - The actions or means managers intend to use to achieve organizational goals.

Pluralistic Organization - An organization that has a relatively diverse employee population and makes an effort to involve employees from different gender, racial, or cultural backgrounds.

Positive Reinforcement - Applying consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it.

Power - The ability to influence others.

Principle of Exception - A managerial principle stating that control is enhanced by concentrating on the exceptions to or by concentrating on the exceptions to or significant deviations from the expected result or standard.

Proactive Change - A response that is initiated before a performance gap has occurred.

Probing - A team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their needs, and experiment with solutions.

Procedural Justice - Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible.

Product Champion - A person who promotes a new technology throughout the organization in an effort to obtain acceptance of and support for it.

Profit and Loss Statement (P&L) - An itemized financial statement of the income and expenses of a company’s operations.

Programmed Decisions - Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations.

Project and Development Teams - Teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed.

Prospectors - Companies that continuously change the boundaries for their task change the boundaries for their task environments by seeking new products and markets, diversifying and merging, or acquiring new enterprises.

Pseudo-transformational Leaders - Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over followers’ needs.

Psychological Contract - A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.

Psychological Maturity - An employee’s self-confidence and self-respect.

Punishment - Administering an aversive consequence.