Sarbanes-Oxley Act - An act passed into law by Congress in 2002 to establish strict accounting and reporting rules in order to make senior managers more accountable and to improve and maintain investor confidence.

Satisficing - Choosing an option that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect.

Scenario - A narrative that describes a particular set of future conditions.

Selection - Choosing from among qualified applicants to hire into an organization.

Self-Designing Teams - Teams with the responsibilities of autonomous work groups, plus control over hiring, firing, and deciding what tasks members perform.

Self-Managed Teams - Autonomous work groups in which workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by frontline supervisors.

Semiautonomous Work Groups - Groups that make decisions about managing and carrying out major production activities but get outside support for quality control and maintenance.

Servant Leader - A leader who serves others’ needs while strengthening the organization.

Service - The speed and dependability with which an organization delivers what customers want.

Sexual Harassment - Conduct of a sexual nature that has negative consequences for employment.

Shapers - Companies that try to change the structure of their industries, creating a future competitive landscape of their own design.

Shared Leadership - Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person has the most relevant skills at a particular time.

Simultaneous - Engineering A design approach in which all relevant functions cooperate jointly and continually in a maximum effort aimed at producing highquality products that meet customers’ needs.

Situational Analysis - A process planners use, within time and resource constraints, to gather, interpret, and summarize all information relevant to the planning issue under consideration.

Situational Approach - Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.

Skunkworks - A project team designated to produce a new, innovative product.

Small Batch - Technologies that produce goods and services in low volume.

Small Business - A business having fewer than 100 employees, independently owned and operated, not dominant in its field, and not characterized by many innovative practices.

Smoothing - Leveling normal fluctuations at the boundaries of the environment.

Social Capital - Goodwill stemming from your social relationships; a competitive advantage in the form of relationships with other people and the image other people have of you.

Social Facilitation Effect - Working harder when in a group than when working alone.

Social Loafing - Working less hard and being less productive when in a group.

Sociotechnical Systems - An approach to job design that attempts to redesign tasks to optimize operation of a new technology while preserving employees’ interpersonal relationships and other human aspects of the work.

Span of Control - The number of subordinates who report directly to an executive or supervisor.

Specialization - A process in which different individuals and units perform different tasks. 

Speed - Fast and timely execution, response, and delivery of results.

Staff Departments - Units that support line departments.

Stakeholders - Groups and individuals who affect and are affected by the achievement of the organization’s mission, goals, and strategies.

Standard - Expected performance for a given goal: a target that establishes a desired performance level, motivates performance, and serves as a benchmark against which actual performance is assessed.

Standardization - Establishing common routines and procedures that apply uniformly to everyone.

Stockholders’ Equity - The amount accruing to the corporation’s owners.

Strategic Alliance - A formal relationship created among independent organizations with the purpose of joint pursuit of mutual goals.

Strategic Control System - A system designed to support managers in evaluating the organization’s progress regarding its strategy and, when discrepancies exist, taking results relating to the organization’s longterm survival, value, and growth.

Strategic Leadership - Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.

Strategic Management - A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.

Strategic Maneuvering - An organization’s conscious efforts to change the boundaries of its task environment.

Strategic Planning - A set of procedures for making decisions about the organization’s long-term goals and strategies.

Strategic Vision - The long-term direction and strategic intent of a company.

Strategy - A pattern of actions and resource allocations designed to achieve the organization’s goals.

Stretch Goals - Targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible.

Structured Interview - Selection technique that involves asking all applicants the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers.

Subscription Model - Charging fees for site visits.

Substitutes for Leadership - Factors in the workplace that can exert the same influence on employees as leaders would provide.

Subunits - Subdivisions of an organization.

Superordinate Goals - Higher-level goals taking priority over specific individual or group goals.

Supervisory Leadership - Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.

Supply Chain Management - The managing of the network of facilities and people that obtain materials from outside the organization, transform them into products, and distribute them to customers.

Survivor’s Syndrome - Loss of productivity and morale in employees who remain after a downsizing.

Sustainable Growth - Economic growth and development that meets present needs without harming the needs of future generations.

Switching Costs - Fixed costs buyers face when they change suppliers.

SWOT Analysis - A comparison of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that helps executives formulate strategy.