360-Degree Appraisal - Process of using multiple sources of appraisal to gain a comprehensive perspective on one’s performance.

Tactical Planning - A set of procedures for translating broad strategic goals and plans into specific goals and plans that are relevant to a distinct portion of the organization, such as a functional area like marketing.

Task-Motivated Leadership - Leadership that places primary emphasis on completing a task.

Task Performance Behaviors - Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.

Task Specialist - An individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members possess.

Team - A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

Team Maintenance Specialist - Individual who develops and maintains team harmony.

Team Training - Training that provides employees with the skills and perspectives they need to collaborate with others.

Technical Innovator - A person who develops a new technology or has the key skills to install and operate the technology.

Technical Skill - The ability to perform a specialized task involving a particular method or process.

Technology - The systematic application of scientific knowledge to a new product, process, or service.

Technology Audit -  Process of clarifying the key technologies on which an organization depends.

Technology Life Cycle - A predictable pattern followed by a technological innovation, from its inception and development to market saturation and replacement.

Termination Interview - A discussion between a manager and an employee about the employee’s dismissal.

Third-Country Nationals - Natives of a country other than the home country or the host country of an overseas subsidiary.

Time-Based Competition (TBC) - Strategies aimed at reducing the total time needed to deliver a good or service.

Top-Level Managers - Senior executives responsible for the overall management and effectiveness of the organization.

Total Organization Change - Introducing and sustaining multiple policies, practices, and procedures across multiple units and levels.

Total Quality Management (TQM) - An integrative approach to management that supports the attainment of customer satisfaction through a wide variety of tools and techniques that result in high-quality goods and services.

Traditional Work Groups - Groups that have no managerial responsibilities.

Training - Teaching lower-level employees how to perform their present jobs.

Trait Approach - A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share.

Transactional Leaders - Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.

Transaction Fee Model - Charging fees for goods and services.

Transcendent Education - An education with five higher goals that balance selfinterest with responsibility to others.

Transfer Price - Price charged by one unit for a good or service provided to another unit within the organization.

Transformational Leader - A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.

Transnational Model - An organizational model characterized by centralizing certain functions in locations that best achieve cost economies; basing other functions in the company’s national subsidiaries to facilitate greater local responsiveness; and fostering communication among subsidiaries to permit transfer of technological expertise and skills.

Transnational Teams - Work groups composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries.

Two-Factor Theory - Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction.

Two-Way Communication - A process in which information flows in two directions—the receiver provides feedback, and the sender is receptive to the feedback.

Tyranny of the Or - The belief that things must be either A or B and cannot be both; that only one goal and not another can be attained.